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Distinguished Professor Stephen Crain

BA UCLA, PhD UCI, FASSA .

Stephen Crain

Director, Program Leader - Language

Contact Details

Office : 3.809
Phone : +61 2 9850 9434
Fax : +61 2 9850 6059
email : stephen.crain@mq.edu.au
Homepage : http://www.ling.mq.edu.au/about/staff/crain_stephen/index.html

External Address

Department of Linguistics
Australian Hearing Hub
16 University Avenue
Macquarie University NSW 2109

Profile

My research is in three areas of the psychology of language: child language acquisition, adult language processing, and neurolinguistics. In the study of child language development, I have contributed to the empirical assessment of the theory of Universal Grammar. For the last decade, my research has focused on children’s acquisition of semantic knowledge, in particular young children’s knowledge of logical expressions. Much of this has been cross-linguistic research, with a particular focus on Mandarin Chinese.

I completed my Bachelor of Arts at the University of California Los Angeles in 1971 and my PhD at the University of California Irvine in 1980. My previous academic and leadership positions have either been in linguistics or in cognitive science. I was head of the Linguistics Department at the University of Connecticut (1991-1994) and was an investigator on grants on language development, language processing, and language disorders at Haskins Laboratories, a Speech and Hearing Research Center in New Haven, CT. I was head of the Linguistics Department at the University of Maryland (1995-2003), where I established the Cognitive Neuroscience of Language Laboratory (est. 1999) and the KIT/Maryland MEG Laboratory (est. 2001). As an ARC Federation Fellow, I proposed to investigate children's linguistic competence using a new methodology for functional brain imaging, called magnetoencephalography (MEG). Since coming to Australia in 2004, I have led international teams of researchers and engineers in the development of two MEG systems: (a) the first whole-head adult MEG system in Australasia (est. 2006), and (b) the world’s first MEG system to study cognitive processing in children (est. 2008).

At Macquarie University, I have held the positions of Deputy Director, Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science (2004-2010), Director, KIT-Macquarie Brain Research Laboratory (2005-2010), and established and was the inaugural Director of the Centre for Language Sciences (2007-2010). In 2010 I was appointed a Macquarie University Distinguished Professor.

Currently, I am Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders (CCD). The CCD is funded for 7 years from 2011, and investigates 5 areas of cognition: language, reading, belief formation, memory, and person perception. I am the Program Leader of the Language Program. I am also Director of the International Center of Child Language Health, in Beijing China, and I am Visiting Professor at the Beijing Language and Culture University, China, and at the Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Japan.

External Appointments

  • Fellow, The Royal Society of New South Wales. (2015 continuing)
  • Member, Standing Review Board, Humanities and Social Sciences Panel, Research Grants Council of Hong Kong. (2012 - 2017)
  • Member, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), Humanities and Creative Arts (HCA) , Research Evaluation Committee, Australian Research Council. (2012)
  • Advisory Board, Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics (TCP). (2011 continuing)
  • Presidential Nominee, Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, MIT Corporation Visiting Committee. (2011 - 2018)
  • Member, Understanding Culture and Communities Expert Working Group, Strategic Roadmap for Australian Research Infrastructure, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. (2011)
  • Editorial Advisory Board, English Linguistics, English Linguistics Society of Japan. (2010 continuing)
  • Editorial Advisory Board, English Linguistics Society of Japan. (2010 continuing)
  • Editorial Board, Semantics and Pragmatics. (2008 continuing)
  • Visiting Professor, Beijing Language and Culture University. (2008 continuing)
  • Editorial Board, Semantics and Pragmatics. (2008 continuing)
  • Chair, National Committee for Brain and Mind, Australian Academy of Science. (2007 - 2013)
  • Advisory Board, North Holland Linguistic Variation Series, Elsevier. (2007 continuing)
  • Editorial Board, Biolinguistics. (2006 continuing)
  • College of Experts, Social, Behavioural and Economic Sciences, Australian Research Council. (2006 - 2008)
  • Fellow, Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. (2006 continuing)
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Child Language. (2005 continuing)
  • Editorial Board, Cambridge University Press, Linguistics Series. (2004 continuing)
  • Federation Fellow, Australian Research Council. (2004 - 2009)
  • Advisory Board, Language Acquisition. (2003 continuing)
  • Associate Editor, Language. (2003 - 2004)
  • Executive Board, Society for Language Development. (2002 continuing)
  • Visiting Professor, Kanazawa Institute of Technology. (2001 continuing)
  • Associate Editor, Linguistics and Philosophy. (1997 - 2004)
  • Associate Editor, Language Acquisition. (1989 - 2003)

Awards

  • Distinguished Professor, Macquarie University (2015), Crain, S.
  • Macquarie University's Faculty of Human Sciences Publication Award for Senior Researchers (2013), Crain, S.
  • Distinguished Professor, Macquarie University (2010), Crain, S.
  • Macquarie University's Division of Linguistics & Psychology Award for Excellence in Research Grant Income (2007), Crain, S.

Grants Awarded

  • ARC CCD Cross Program Support Scheme (2016) "Lost for words: Exploring how language disruption impacts social interactions in dementia." Irish, M., Barnier, A., Harris, C., Thornton, R., Crain, S., & Piguet, O. ($39,656)
  • Macquarie University Faculty of Human Sciences Equipment Grant (2014) "Speech studio equipment." Cox, F., Proctor, M., Demuth, K., Crain, S., Xu, N., Slatyer, H., Kruger, J.-L., Mannell, R., Yuen, I., Palethorpe, S., McMahon, C., Barnes, S., Thornton, R., Cupples, L., & Sharma M. ($9,980)
  • Australia-China Science and Research Fund [ACSRF16440] (2013 - 2014) "Hearing impairment and language acquisition: Workshops to develop joint research and clinical projects to be undertaken with the International Centre of Child Language Health (ICCLH)." Cowan, R., Gao, L., Crain, S., Johnson, B., Zhou, P., Coltheart, M., Uehara, G., Dillon, H., Shi, F., Fuzhen, S., Wang, S., Bi, H.-Y., & Yu, W. ($43,556)
  • ARC CCD Cross Program Support Scheme (2013) "The historical present in past and future narratives." Irish, M., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Johnson, B., Addis, D., & Piguet, O. ($40,000)
  • Macquarie University Partnerships Seeding Grant (2013) "Effects of early intervention on auditory brain development in a child with a cochlear implant: A MEG pilot study." Johnson, B., & Crain, S. ($9,130)
  • Macquarie University Enterprise Partnership Scheme (with Cochlear/Hear and Say) (2013 - 2014) "Measurement of auditory brain function in children with cochlear implants." Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. ($49,880)
  • Macquarie University Faculty of Human Sciences Equipment Grant Scheme (2013) "MEG compatible EEG caps." McArthur, G., & Crain, S. ($10,000)
  • Macquarie University Faculty of Human Sciences Equipment Grant Scheme (2013) "MEG system transfer tube." McArthur, G., & Crain, S. ($5,109)
  • Australia-China Science and Research Fund (9201200088) (2012) "Developing strategic links between Macquarie University, Beijing Language and Culture University and project partners on language acquisition and childhood language disorders." Crain, S., Gao, L., Cutler, A., Coltheart, M., Yu, W., Bi, H., Ma, Y., Wang, M., Wang, F., Johnson, B., Thornton, R., & Zhou, P. ($13,455)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block (2012 - 2013) "Tobii eye-tracker for testing infants and young children." Demuth, K., Grant, K.-A., McMahon, C., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Sharma, M., Cox, F., Tsukada, K., Zhou, P., & Moscati, V. ($49,150)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2012) “Upgrade of child magnetoencephalography (MEG) system.” Johnson, B.W., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Demuth, K., Brock, J., Sowman, P., Zhou, P., & Johnson, M. ($100,000)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grants Scheme (2011 - 2012) An MEG brain imaging system for Cochlear implants. Crain, S., Johnson, B.W., & McMahon, C. ($360,000)
  • ARC Centre of Excellence [CE110001021] (2011 - 2017) "ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders." Crain, S., Rhodes, G., Hodges, J., Coltheart, M., Castles, A., Barnier, A., Brock, J., Byrne, B., Demuth, K., Green, M., Langdon, R., Johnson, B., McArthur, G., Miller, L., Nickels, L., Piguet, O., Savage, G., Thompson, W., Thornton, R. et al. ($21,000,000)
  • NHMRC Project Grant [APP1003760] (2011 - 2013) "Brain dynamics and sensorimotor integration associated with speech production in humans who stutter." Sowman, P., Johnson, B., Harrison, E., & Crain, S. ($294,884)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2010) "MEG-compatible eyetracker." Brock, J., Crain, S., Williams, M., Savage, G., Rich, A., McArthur, G., Sharma, M., Langdon, R., & Tesan, G. ($40,000)
  • ARC Discovery Project Grant [DP1096160] (2010 - 2014) "The emergence of logic in child language." Crain, S., Johnson, B., Khlentzos, D., Tseng, O., Lee, T.H-T., & Gao, L-Q. ($601,000)
  • National Philosophy and Social Science Foundation Grant of China (2010) "Semantic acquisition in Chinese and English: A Crosslinguistic comparison of children's understanding of logical words." Gao, L., Lee, T.H-T., Crain, S., & Thornton, R.
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2010) "A dual pulse magnetic stimulator for the study of brain excitation and inhibition in human movement studies." Sowman, P., Finkbeiner, M., Crain, S., Harrison, E., Cox, F., Brock, J., Savage, G., Johnson, B., Friedman, J., Mannell, R. ($75,000)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2009) "Integrating EEG and Motion Capture to better understand movements and their underlying electrophysiology." Finkbeiner, M., Johnson, B., Kinoshita, S., Castles, A., Thompson, W., Crain, S., & Harrison, R.E. ($80,000)
  • National Social Science Foundation Grant of China (2009 - 2011) Semantic acquisition in Chinese and English: A Cross-linguistic comparison of children's understanding of logical words. Gao, L.Q., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Lee, T. H.-T., Huang, Y. Y., Yang, S. Y., & Zhou, P. ($13,000)
  • Macquarie University Strategic Infrastructure Scheme Research Infrastructure Fund (2009) "MEG-compatible polygraphic equipment for measuring electromyography and other peripheral signals." Johnson, B., Coltheart, M., Crain, S., Thompson, B., Savage, G., Mannell, R., Cox, F., Williams, M.A., Rich, A., Finkbeiner, M., & Palermo, R. ($40,039)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2009) "Kids' Science Club: A Children's Research Register at Macquarie University". McArthur, G., Robbins, R., Castles, A., Crain, S., Rapee, R., Thornton, R., Lyneham, H., Cupples, L., Hudson, J., Bowes, J., Palermo, R., Brock, J., Porter, M., Johnson, B., Cox, F., Warburton, W., Kohnen, S., Jensen, B. ($32,858)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2008) "Acquisition of a Storage Area Network (SAN)." Coltheart, M., Crain, S., Williams, M.A., Rich, A., Johnson, B., Barnier, A., Nickels, L., McArthur, G., Castles, A., Langdon, R., Palermo, R., Kinoshita, S., & Coltheart, V. ($63,000)
  • ARC Linkage-Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Grant (2008) "A 3.0 Tesla MRI system for human cognitive neuroscience research." Mattingley, J.B., Cunnington, R., Hester, R.L., Bellgrove, M.A., Lipp, O.V., Wallis, G.M., Brereton. I.M., Galloway, G.J., de Zubicaray, G.I., Crozier, S., Colditz, P.B., Jull, G.A., Hodges, P.W.,Coltheart, M., Crain, S., & Williams, M.A. ($650,000)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2008) "64-Channel EEG acquire and analysis system and special MEG-compatable electrode caps and cable system." Rich, A., Williams, M.A., Johnson, B., Finkbeiner, M., Savage, G., & Crain, S. ($80,000)
  • ARC Discovery Project Grant (2008 - 2011) "The meaning of 'OR' in logic and human languages". DP0879842 Thornton, R., Crain, S. ($306,700)
  • Macquarie University Research Innovation Fund (2007 - 2010) "From the neuron to the self: Human nature and the new cognitive neurosciences." Barnier, A., Bayne, T., Coltheart, M., Crain, S., Langdon, R., Mackenzie, C., Menzies, P., & Sutton, J. ($249,756)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2007) "MACCS - Brain imaging software." Coltheart, M., Crain, S., & Johnson, B. ($36,310)
  • Macquarie University Chair (Research Committee) Discretionary Fund (2007) "Third year logic." Crain, S. ($20,000)
  • Macquarie University Research Centres Scheme (2007 - 2011) "Centre for Language Sciences." Crain, S., Peters, P., Cupples, L., Johnston, T.A., Nickels, L., McMahon, C., & Thornton, R. ($150,000)
  • Macquarie University Research Innovation Fund (2007 - 2009) "From the Neuron to the Self: human nature and the new cognitive neurosciences." Sutton, J., Bayne, T., Coltheart, M., Crain, S., Langdon, R., Mackenzie, C., Menzies, P., & Barnier, A. ($250,000)
  • Macquarie University Visiting Scholars Scheme (2006) "The use of context in language processing: Professor Mark Steedman" Crain, S. ($5,100)
  • Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training Co-operative Research Centres Programme. (2006 - 2012) The HEARing Co-operative Research Centre. Core participants: The University of Melbourne, Cochlear Ltd., Siemens Hearing Instruments Pty Ltd, Australian Hearing, Macquarie University. Crain, S. ($32,550,000)
  • Macquarie University External Collaborative Research Grant (2006) "Investigating Auditory Processing using MEG." Crain, S., Coltheart, M., & Newall, P. ($15,000)
  • Macquarie University External Collaborative Research Grants Scheme (2006) "Investigating Auditory Processing using MEG" Crain, S., Coltheart, M., and Newell, P. ($15,000)
  • Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme (2006) "Helium Recovery System for the Macquarie-KIT Brain Research Lab." Crain, S., Coltheart, M., Langdon, R., & McArthur, G. ($80,747)
  • ARC Linkage-Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Grant (2006) "A MEG based cognitive neuroscience laboratory" Crain, S., Coltheart, M., Michie, M., Crewther, D.P., Pammer, K., Johnson, B.W. & Mattingley, J.B. ($650,000)
  • ARC Linkage Project grant, with Yokogawa Electric Co. as a partner organization (2006 - 2009) "An MEG (brain imaging) system to study cognitive processes in children" (Total grant contribution $970,000) Crain, S., Coltheart, M., Thornton, R., & Kado, H. ($220,000)
  • Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training Co-operative Research Centres Programme (2006 - 2014) The HEARing Co-operative Research Centre Project R4.7.2B “Cortical evaluation of implant performance.” Johnson, B.W., Crain, S., & McMahon, C.
  • ARC Federation Fellowship (2004 - 2009) "Logic and language: Foundations of cognitive growth." Crain, S. ($1,481,765)
  • ARC Large Research Grants Scheme (2001 - 2003) "Linguistic and Cognitive Processes in Children at Risk for Developmental Dyslexia" Crain, S., & Byrne, B. ($90,000)
  • Course Development Award: Core Human Cultural Diversity (0000) "Knowing a Language - A Cross-Cultural Perspective". Crain, S., Thornton, R., Weinberg, A. ($4,000)

Media Engagement

Selected Publications

Books

  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2015). Investigations in Universal Grammar: A Guide to Experiments on the Acquisition of Syntax and Semantics. Translation Series of Linguistics Abroad, Classical Textbook. Beijing, China: The Commercial Press.
  • Crain, S. (2012). The Emergence of Meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Lillo-Martin, D. (1999). An Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (1998). Investigations in universal grammar: A guide to experiments in the acquisition of syntax and semantics. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Book Chapters

  • Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (In Press). Semantics and pragmatics: Acquisition of logical connectives and focus. In C.T.J. Huang & R. Sybesma (Eds.), The encyclopedia of Chinese language and linguistics. The Netherlands: Brill Academic.
  • Crain, S. (2015). Sentence scope. In E. Bavin, & L.R. Naigles (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language (2nd ed., pp. 388-408). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2015). 3rd year grammar. In A. Gallego, & D. Ott (Eds.), 50 Years Later: Reflections on Chomsky (pp. 71-84). Cambridge, USA: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2014). Theories of language acquisition. In D.C. Phillips (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2013). Innateness and parameter setting. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind (pp. 414-418). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2013). Unification in child language. In I. Caponigro & C. Cecchetto (Eds.), From grammar to meaning: The spontaneous logicality of language (pp. 235-265). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T., Notley, A., & Zhou, P. (2013). A parametric account of scope in child language. In S. Stavrakaki, M. Lalioti & P. Konstantinopoulou (Eds.), Advances in language acquisition (pp. 63-71). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar Publishing.
  • Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2013). Parameters: The pluses and the minuses. In M. den Dikken (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of generative syntax (pp. 927-970). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S. (2012). Meaning in first language acquisition. In C. Maienborn, K. von Heusinger & P. Portner (Eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning (3rd ed., pp. 2724-2752). Berlin: de Gruyter.
  • Pietroski, P., & Crain, S. (2012). The language faculty. In E. Margolis, R. Samuels & S.P. Stich (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Cognitive Science (pp. 361-381). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2011). Constraints in language acquisition. In P. Hogan (Ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences (pp. 214-216). Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2011). Acquisition of semantics. In P. Hogan (Ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences (pp. 745-748). Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2011). Children's use of context in ambiguity resolution. In E. Gibson, & N. Pearlmutter (Eds.), The Processing and acquisition of Reference (pp. 43-64). Cambridge, MA, USA: The MIT Press.
  • Crain, S. (2009). Sentence scope. In E. Bavin (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sano, T., & Crain, S. (2008). Unconstrained variable binding: ECM constructions in child English. In T. Sano, M. Endo, M. Isobe, K. Otaki, K. Sugisaki, & T. Suzuki (Eds.), An Enterprise in the Cognitive Science of Language: A Festschrift for Yukio Otsu (pp. 53-64). Tokyo, Japan: Hituzi Syobo.
  • Tesan, G., & Crain, S. (2008). An MEG study of the negative polarity item any: Lexical and postlexical processing. In R. Kakigi, K. Yokosawa, & S. Kuriki (Eds.), Biomagnetism: Interdisciplinary research and exploration (pp. 229-231). Tokyo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T., & Minai, U. (2007). Hidden units in child language. In A. C. Schalley & D. Khlentzos (Eds.), Mental States. Volume 1: Evolution, function, nature (pp. 275-294). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.
  • Thornton, R., Crain, S. & Tesan, G. (2007). Principles, parameters and probability. In I. Gulzow, & N. Gagarina (Eds.), Frequency Effects in Language Acquisition (SOLA Series) (pp. 359-382). New York, United States: de Gruyter.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2006). Acquisition of syntax and semantics. In M. Traxler & M. Gernsbacher (Eds.), Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 1073-1110). St Peters, Australia: Elsevier.
  • Meroni, L., Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2006). Everybody knows. In V. van Geenhoven (Ed.), Semantics in Acquisition (pp. 89-114). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Crain, S., Gualmini, A., & Pietroski, P. (2005). Brass tacks in linguistic theory: Innate grammatical principles. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence & S. Stich (Eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Content : Oxford University Press.
  • Gannari, S., Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2005). Rapid relief of stress in dealing with ambiguity. In J. Trueswell & M. Tanenhaus (Eds.), Approaches to studying world-situated language use: Bridging the language-as-product and language-as-action traditions (pp. 245-259). : MIT Press.
  • Meroni, L. & Crain, S. (2005). How children avoid kindergarten paths. In E. Gibson & N. Pearlmutter (Eds.), The processing and acquisition of reference Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Pietroski, P., & Crain, S. (2005). Innate Ideas. In J. McGGilvray (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Chomsky (pp. 164-180). : Cambridge University Press.
  • Chierchia, G., Guasti, M.T., Gualmini, A., Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2004). Semantic and pragmatic competence in children and adult's interpretation of 'or'. In I. Noveck & S. Wilson (Eds.), Experimental Pragmatics (pp. 283-300). London: Palgraves.
  • Crain, S. & Thrornton, R. (2003). Acquisition of syntax. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
  • Crain, S. (2002). The continuity assumption. In I. Lasser (Ed.), The Process of Language Acquisition (pp. 3-24). New York: Peter Lang.
  • Crain, S. & Wexler, K. (1999). Methodology in the study of language acquisition: A modular approach. In W.C. Ritchie & T.K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of Language Acquisition : Academic Press.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1994). Successful cyclic movement. In T. Hoekstra, & B. Schwartz (Eds.), Language Acquisition Studies in Generative Grammar (pp. 215-253). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1991). Recharting the course of language acquisition: Studies in elicited production. In N. Krasnegor, D. Rumbaugh, R. Schiefelbusch, & M. Studdert-Kennedy (Eds.), Biobehavioral Foundations of Language Development (pp. 321-339). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Periodicals

  • Irish, M., Kamminga, J., Addis, D.R., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Hodges, J.R., & Piguet, O. (In Press). 'Language of the past' - Exploring past tense disruption during autobiographical narration in neurodegenerative disorders. Journal of Neuropsychology. doi:10.1111/jnp.12073
  • Moscati, V., Romoli, J., Demarie, T.F., & Crain, S. (2016). Born in the USA: A comparison of modals and nominal quantifiers in child language. Natural Language Semantics, 24(1), 79-115. doi:10.1007/s11050-015-9120-1
  • Sowman, P.F., Ryan, M., Johnson, B.W., Savage, G., Crain, S., Harrison, E., Martin, E., & Burianová, H. (In Press). Reduced grey matter in the left caudate nucleus of adults who stutter. Brain and Language.
  • Tang, H., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2016). Dual temporal encoding mechanisms in human auditory cortex: Evidence from MEG and EEG. NeuroImage, 128, 32-43. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.053
  • Geçkin, V., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2015). The interpretation of logical connectives in Turkish. Journal of Child Language, 42(4), 1-27. doi://10.1017/S0305000915000306
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (In Press). Children’s interpretation of conjunction in the scope of negation in English and Mandarin: New evidence for the semantic subset maxim. Applied Psycholinguistics. doi:10.1017/S0142716415000296
  • Zhan, L., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2015). The online processing of only if- and even if- conditional statements: Implications for mental models. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27(3), 367-379. [Link]
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., Gao, L., Tang, Y., & Jia, M. (2015). The use of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(5), 1428–1436. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2304-6
  • Bill, C., Romoli, J., Schwarz, F. & Crain, S. (In Press). Scalar implicatures vs. presuppositions: The view from acquisition [Special Issue]. Topoi: Presuppositions: Philosophy, Linguistics and Psychology. doi:10.1007/s11245-014-9276-1
  • Cheyne, D., Jobst, C., Tesan, G., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2014). Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children. Human Brain Mapping, 35(9), 4858–4875. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22518
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2014). Acquisition of the polarity sensitive item renhe ‘any’ in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Child Language, 41, 861-889. doi:10.1017/S0305000913000275
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2014). Polarity sensitive expressions in child Mandarin. Language Acquisition, 21, 339-364. doi:10.1080/10489223.2014.884569
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2014). Acquisition of the numerical wh-pronoun ji 'how many' in Mandarin Chinese. Lingua, 145, 122–140.
  • Moscati, V., & Crain, S. (2014). When negation and epistemic modality combine: The role of information strength in child language. Language Learning and Development, 10(36), 345-380. doi:10.1080/15475441.2014.880640
  • Peter, V., McArthur, G., & Crain, S. (2014). Using event-related potentials to measure phrase boundary perception in English. BMC Neuroscience, 15(1), 129. doi:10.1186/s12868-014-0129-z
  • Sowman, P., Crain, S., Harrison, E., & Johnson, B.W. (2014). Lateralization of brain activation in fluent and non-fluent preschool children: A magnetoencephalographic study of picture-naming. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 354. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00354
  • Tieu, L., Romoli, J., Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (In Press). Children's knowledge of free choice inferences and scalar implicatures. Journal of Semantics. doi:10.1093/jos/ffv001
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S. & Zhan, L. (2014). Grammatical aspect and event recognition in children's online sentence comprehension. Cognition, 133(1), 262-276. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.06.018
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2014). Children’s knowledge of double negative structures in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 23(4), 333-359. doi:10.1007/s10831-013-9118-y
  • Crain, S. (2013). What's parsing got to do with it? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3(3), 301-307. [Link]
  • Johnson, B.W., McArthur, G.M., Hautus, M., Reid, M., Brock, J., Castles, A., & Crain, S. (2013). Lateralized auditory brain function in children with normal reading ability and in children with dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 51(4), 633-641. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.12.015
  • Su, Y, E., & Crain, S. (2013). Scalar implicatures and downward entailment in child Mandarin. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 22(2), 167-187. doi:10.1007/s10831-012-9101-z
  • Su, Y, E., & Crain, S. (2013). Children's knowledge of disjunction and universal quantification in Mandarin Chinese. Language and Linguistics, 14(3), 599-631.
  • Coltheart, M., & Crain, S. (2012). Are there universals of reading? We don't believe so. Invited commentary on "Towards a universal model of reading". Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 20-21.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2012). Syntax acquisition. Advanced Review. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 3(2), 185-203. doi:10.1002/wcs.1158
  • Notley, A., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2012). English-speaking children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'not every'. Biolinguistics, 6(1), 32-69.
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., Jensen, B., & Crain, S. (2012). Children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'before': A comparison of English and Mandarin. Journal of Child Language, 39(3), 482-522. doi:10.1017/S0305000911000092
  • Sowman, P.F., Crain, S., Harrison, E., & Johnson, B.W. (2012). Reduced activity of left orbitofrontal cortex precedes blocked vocalization: A magnetoencephalographic study. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 37, 359-365.
  • Su, Y.E., Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2012). Downward entailment in child Mandarin. Journal of Child Language, 39(5), 957-990.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B., & Crain, S. (2012). How the brain responds to 'any': An MEG study. Brain and Language, 120(1), 66-72. [Link]
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Zhan, L.K. (2012). Sometimes children are as good as adults: The pragmatic use of prosody in children's on-line sentence processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, 149-164. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2012.03.005
  • Zhou, P., Su, Y., Crain, S., Gao, L.Q., & Zhan, L.K. (2012). Children's use of phonological information in ambiguity resolution: A view from Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Child Language, 39, 687-730. doi:10.1017/S0305000911000249
  • Luo, Q.P., & Crain, S. (2011). Do Chinese wh- Conditionals have relatives in other languages? Language and Linguistics, 12(4), 753-798.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2011). Children's knowledge of the quantifier dou in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 40(3), 155-176. doi:10.1007/s10936-010-9161-z
  • Crain, S., & Khlentzos, D. (2010). The Logic Instinct. Mind and Language, 25(1), 30-65.
  • Crain, S., Khlentzos, D., & Thornton, R. (2010). Universal Grammar versus linguistic diversity. Lingua, 120, 2668-2672. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2010.03.005
  • Johnson, B.W., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Tesan, G., & Reid, M. (2010). Measurement of brain function in pre-school children using a custom sized whole-head MEG sensor array. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121(3), 340-349. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2009.10.017
  • Shankweiler, D., Conway Palumbo, L., Fulbright, R., Einar Mencl, W., Van Dyke, J., Kollia, B., Thornton, R., Crain, S., & Harris, K. (2010). Testing the limits of language production in long-term survivors of major stroke: A Psycholinguistic and anatomic study. Aphasiology, 24(11), 1455-1485.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., Reid, M., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2010). Measurement Of Neuromagnetic Brain Function In Pre-school Children With Custom Sized MEG. JoVE, 36. doi:10.3791/1693
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2010). Focus identification in child Mandarin. Journal of Child Language, 37, 965-1005. doi:10.1017/S0305000909990110
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R., & Khlentzos, D. (2009). The case of the missing generalizations. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(1), 145-155. doi:10.1515/COGL.2009.008
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R., & Murasugi, K. (2009). Capturing the evasive passive. Language Acquisition, 16(2), 123-133. doi:10.1080/10489220902769234
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2009). Children's interpretation of focus expressions in English and Mandarin. Language Acquisition, 16(4), 240-282. doi:10.1080/10489220903266669
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2009). Scope assignment in child language: Evidence from the acquisition of Chinese. Lingua, 119, 973-988. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2009.01.001
  • Crain, S. (2008). The Interpretation of Disjunction in Universal Grammar. Language And Speech, 51(1&2), 151-169.
  • Crain, S., & Khlentzos, D. (2008). Is logic Innate? Biolinguistics, 2(1), 24-56.
  • Crain, S., & Pietroski, P. (2006). Is Generative Grammar deceptively simple or simply deceptive? Lingua, 116, 64-68.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T. & Thornton, R. (2006). Language acquisition is language change. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 35, 31-49.
  • Armon-Lotem, S.V., & Crain, S. (2005). Interface Conditions in Child Language: Crosslinguistic studies on the nature of possession. Language Acquisition, 12, 171-217.
  • Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2005). The structure of children's linguistic knowledge. Linguistic Inquiry, 36(3), 463-674.
  • Guasti, M.T., Chierchia, G., Crain, S., Foppolo, F., Gualmini, A., & Meroni, L. (2005). Why children and adults sometimes (but not always) compute scalar implicatures. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20, 667-696.
  • Armon-Lotem, S., Varlostika, S., & Crain, S. (2004). Interface Conditions in Child Language: Crosslinguistic studies on the nature of possession. Language Acquisition, 12(3&4), 171-217.
  • Crain, S., & Pietroski, P. (2002). Why language acquisition is a snap. Linguistic Review, 19, 163-183.
  • Crain, S., Ni, W., & Shankweiler, D. (2002). Grammatism. Brain and Language, 77(3), 294-304.
  • Crain, S., & Pietroski, P. (2001). Nature, nurture and Universal Grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy, 24, 139-185.
  • Crain, S., Gualmini, A., & Meroni, L. (2000). The acquisition of Logical words. LOGOS and Language, 1, 49-59.
  • Musolino, J., Crain, S., & Thornton, R.J. (2000). Navigating negative semantic space. Linguistics and Philosophy, 38, 1-32.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1999). Levels of representation in child language. Linguistic Review, 16, 81-123.
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R., Boster, C., Conway, L., Lillo-Martin, D., & Woodams, E. (1996). Quantification without qualification. Language Acquisition, 3(2), 83-153.
  • Fodor, J.D., Ni, W., Crain, S. & Shankweiler, D. (1996). Tasks and timing in the perception of linguistic anomaly. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research.
  • Ni, W., Crain, S. & Shankweiler, D. (1996). Sidestepping garden paths. Language and Cognitive Processes.
  • Shankweiler, D., Crain, S., Katz, L., Fowler, A.E., Liberman, A.M., Brady, S.A., Thornton, R., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L., Fletcher, J.M., Stuebing, K.K., Shaywitz, S.E. & Shaywitz, B.A. (1995). Cognitive profiles of reading-disabled children: Comparison of language skills in phonology, morphology and syntax. Psychological Science, 6, 149-156.

Published Abstracts

  • Miller Amberber, A., Nickels, L., Coltheart, M., & Crain, S. (2015). Subcortical links in bilingual language representation [Abstract]. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Conference Abstract: XII International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience (ICON-XII). doi:10.3389/conf.fnhum.2015.217.00226
  • Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2012). MEG neuroimaging in preschool-aged children: New insights into the developing brain [Abstract]. ACNS-2012 Australasian Cognitive Neuroscience Conference. doi:10.3389/conf.fnhum.2012.208.00050
  • Tang, H., Brock, J., Demuth, K., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2012). Oscillatory phase tracking of acoustic signal: Inter-trial phase locking response as a sensitive measure [Abstract]. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi:10.3389/conf.fnhum.2012.208.00174
  • Miller Amberber, A., Nickels, L., Crain, S., & Coltheart, M. (2011). Grammatical impairment of code-switching but intact language selection in bilinguals with aphasia [Abstract]. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 23, 39-40.
  • Imada, T., Pikho, E., Taulu, S., Bosseler, A., Ahonen, A., Makela, J., Kuhl, P.K., Huotilainen, M., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2010). Recording and analysis of perceptual/cognitive MEG/EEG responses from neonates/infants/children [Abstract]. Frontiers in Neuroscience Conference Abstract: Biomag 2010 - 17th International Conference on Biomagnetism.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2010). Young children's computation of scalar implicatures in Mandarin Chinese [Abstract]. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cognitive Science, 415-416. Beijing: University of Science and Technology of China Press.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., Reid, M., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2010). Using a whole-head child MEG to assess language development in four year old children [Abstract]. Frontiers in Neuroscience Methods, BioMag2010, International Conference on Biomagnetism, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 21 March- 1 April 2010.
  • Miller Amberber, A. Nickels, L., Coltheart, M., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2009). Language-switching and language selection in bilinguals with aphasia: Grammatical versus discourse impairment [Abstract]. Brain Impairment: Abstracts of the 32nd Brain Impairment Conference, 10, 138-139.
  • Peter, V., McArthur, G., Thompson, W., & Crain, S. (2009). ERP correlates of phrase boudnary perception in speech and music [Abstract]. Combined Abstracts of 2009 Australian Psychology Conferences [CDROM].
  • Miller Amberber, A.M., Nickels, L., Coltheart, M., & Crain, S. (2008). Language switching in bilingual aphasia: what is "pathological" code-switching? [Abstract]. Brain Impairment, 9(3), 305-317.
  • Goro, T., Minai, U., & Crain, S. (2005). Bringing out the logic in child language [Abstract]. Proceedings of North Eastern Linguistic Society, 35.

Published Conference Proceedings

  • Bill, C., Romoli, J., Schwarz, F. & Crain, S. (In Press). Presuppositions vs. scalar implicatures in acquisition. In E. Doty & B. Sneller (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium University o Pennsylvania, USA: UPenn Working Papers in Linguistics.
  • Tieu, L., Bill, C., Romoli, J., & Crain, S. (2014). Plurality inferences are scalar implicatures: Evidence from acquisition. In J. Grieser, T. Snider, S. D'Antonio, & M. Wiegand (Eds.), Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 24) (pp. 122-136). Portland, USA: Linguistic Society of America.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2014). Lexical aspect and the use of negation by Mandarin-speaking children. In U. Minai, A. Tremblay, C. Coughlin, C.-Y. Chu, & B. Lopez Prego (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition - North America 5 (GALANA 5) (pp. 150-156). Somerville: Cascadilla Press.
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2013). The numerical wh-pronoun ji in child Mandarin. In Y. Otsu (Ed.), The Proceedings of the 14th Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics (pp. 83-98). Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo Publishing.
  • Panizza, D., Notley, A., Thorton, R., & Crain, S. (2013). When children are as logical as adults: The interpretation of numerals in child language. In S. Baiz, N. Goldman & R. Hawkes (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 306-318). Somerville: Cascadilla Press.
  • Zhan, L., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2013). The anticipatory effects of focus operators: a visual-world paradigm eye-tracking study of “only if” and “even if” conditionals. In N. Goto, K. Otaki, A. Sato, & K. Takita (Eds.), Proceedings of GLOW in Asia IX, 2012 Mie University: Japan.
  • Zhou, P., Romoli, J., & Crain, S. (2013). Children's knowledge of free choice inferences. In T. Snider (Ed.), Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 23 (pp. 632-651). Santa Cruz, USA: Cornell University.
  • Zhou, P., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2013). The logic of double negation in child language. In S. Baiz, N. Goldman & R. Hawkes (Eds.), Proceedings of 37th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 495-507). Somerville: Cascadilla Press.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2012). Focus and scope in child language. In Y.-O. Biq & L. Chen (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Chinese Language and Linguistics (IsCLL-13) (pp. 434-455). Taipei: National Taiwan Normal University.
  • Miller Amberber, A., Nickels, L., Crain, S., & Coltheart, M. (2011). Switching languages in bilingual aphasia: Evidence from Rarotongan, Maltese, French and English. In A. Gavarrò (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th International Science of Aphasia Conference (pp. 104-107). Barcelona, Spain: Science of Aphasia.
  • Akagi, N., Goro, T., Thornton, R., and Crain, S. (2011). Children’s interpretation of disjunction in questions in Japanese. In M. Pirvulescu., M. C. Cuervo, A. Pérez-Leroux, J. Steele, & N. Strik (Eds.), Proceedings of GALANA 4 (pp. 1-11). University of Toronto, Canada: Cascadilla Press.
  • Crain, S. & Luo, Q.P. (2011). Identity and Definiteness in Chinese Wh-Conditionals. In Reich, Ingo et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Sinn & Bedeutung 15 (pp. 165-179). Saabrucken, Germany: Universaar – Saarland Univerisity Press.
  • Luo, Q.P., & Crain, S. (2011). Uniqueness and co-variation in Chinese Wh-conditionals. In Y. Otsu (Ed.), The Proceedings of the 12th Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics (TCP) Tokyo, Japan: Hituzi Publishing Company.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (In Press). Disjunction and conditionals in child Mandarin. In L. Liu, & L. Eby (Ed.), Proceedings of the 22nd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-22) and the 18th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Chinese Linguistics. Cambridge: Harvard University.
  • Adachi, Y., Miyamoto, M., Kawai, J., Kawabata, M., Higuchi, M., Oyama, D., Uehara, G., Ogata, H., Kado, H., Haruta, Y., Tesan, G., & Crain, S. (2010). Development of a Whole-Head Child MEG System. In S. Supek, & A. Susac (Eds.), IFMBE Proceedings 28 (pp. 35-38). Dubrovnik, Croatia: Springer.
  • Crain, S. (2010). What are core linguistic properties? In W. Christensen, E. Schier, & J. Sutton (Eds.), ASCS 2009: Proceedings of the Australasian Society of Cognitive Science (pp. 67-71). Sydney: Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science.
  • Crain, S. & Luo, Q.P. (2010). On the typology of Wh-conditionals in Chinese. In Y. Otsu (Ed.), The Proceedings of the 11th Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics (TCP) (pp. 97). Tokyo, Japan: Hituzi Publishing Company.
  • Jensen, B., Notley, A., & Crain, S. (2010). Universal quantification in children's English. In L. de Beuzeville, & P. Peters (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2008 Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society University of Sydney, Australia: Australian Linguistic Society.
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., Jensen, B. & Crain, S. (2010). Children's interpretation of 'before' and 'or' in English and Mandarin Chinese. In R. Mohanty, & M. Menon (Eds.), Proceedings of GLOW in ASIA VII 2009 (pp. 97-116). Hyderabad: EFL University Press.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2010). Dou-quantification in child Mandarin. In J. Costa, A. Castro, M. Lobo & F. Pratas (Eds.), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2009 (pp. 505-518). Lisbon, Portugal: Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Miller Amberber, A., Nickels, L., Coltheart, M., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2009). Code-switching in bilinguals with aphasia: experimental evidence of grammatical impairment. In (Ed.), Proceedings of International Symposium on Bilingualism 7 the Netherlands: Utrecht University.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2009). Disjunction and universal quantification in child Mandarin. In Y, Otsu (Ed.), The Proceedings of the Tenth Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics (pp. 265-289). Tokyo, Japan: Hituzi Syobo Publishing.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2009). Focus in child language: Evidence from the acquisition of Chinese. In J. Crawford, K. Otaki, & M. Takahashi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition North America (GALANA 2008) (pp. 336-346). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
  • Crain, S. (2008). Semantic universals in child and adult language. In A. Gavarro, & M. J. Freitas (Eds.), Proceedings of Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition, 2007 (pp. 143-153). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Tesan, G., & Crain, S. (2008). An MEG study of the Negative Polarity Item any: lexical and postlexical processing. In R. Kakigi, K. Yokosawa, & S. Kuriki (Eds.), Biomagnetism: Interdisciplinary research and exploration (pp. 229-231). Tokyo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2008). Scope Assignment in Chinese: Why Children and Adults differ. In Y. Otsu (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics (pp. 341-366). Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo.
  • Meroni, L. Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2007). The strength of the universal quantifier in child language. In A. Belikova, L. Meroni, & M. Umeda (Eds.), Proceedings of Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition-North America (2nd ed., pp. 277-284). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
  • Goro, T., Minai, U. & Crain, S. (2006). Bringing out the logic in child language. In L. Bateman, & C. Ussery (Eds.), Proceedings of North Eastern Linguistic Society, 35, Vol 1 (pp. 245-256). Amherst, MA: GLSA.
  • Meroni, L., Minai, U., & Crain, S. (2006). If everybody knows, then every child knows. In A. Belletti, E. Bennati, C. Chesi, E. Di Domenico, & I. Ferrari (Eds.), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALSA 2005). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Minai, U., & Crain, S. (2006). Semantic interactions of quantificational expressions in child language. In K.U. Deen, J. Nomura, B. Schultz, & B.D. Schwartz (Ed.), The Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference on Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition-North America. University of Connecticut Occasional Papers in Linguistics 4 (pp. 205-216). Cambridge, M.A.: MITWPL.
  • Minai, U., Goro, T. & Crain, S. (2006). Covert downward entailment in child English and Japanese. In K.U. Deen, J. Nomura, B. Schultz, & B.D. Schwartz (Eds.), The Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference on Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition-North America. University of Connecticut Occasional Papers in Linguistics 4 (pp. 217-228). Cambridge, M.A.: MITWPL.
  • Goro, T., Minai, U. and Crain, S. (2005). Two disjunctions for the price of only one. In A. Brugos, M. R. Clark-Cotton & S. Ha (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Boston University Conference on Language (pp. 228-239). Sommerville, USA: Cascadilla Press.

Conference Presentations, Colloquia, and other presentations

  • Crain, S. (2016, June). Only the Dark Knight is free to choose. Invited paper presented at the Disjunction Days: Theoretical and Experimental Perspectives on Disjunction, ZAS, Germany.
  • Crain, S. (2016, May). When is Batman free to choose? Invited paper presented at the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy - Ken Wexler Workshop, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
  • Crain, S., & Sowman, P. (2016, May). Stimulating and imaging. Invited paper presented at the US-Australia Enabling Technologies Technical Exchange Meeting, The University of New South Wales.
  • Crain, S. (2016, March). When I was a child I spoke as a child. Invited presentation given at the Union, University & Schools Club of Sydney, Sydney.
  • Crain, S., & Giblin, I. (2016, February). Introduction to Linguistics, High School Outreach Invited presentation given at the Gifted and Talented Extension Program Workshop, The Emanuel School, Randwick.
  • Crain, S. (2016, January). Unification in child language. Invited colloquium at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences Seminar, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
  • Bill, C., Pagliarini, E., Romoli, J., Tieu, L., & Crain, S. (2015, November). Children's interpretation of sentences with multiple scalar terms. Poster session presented at the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders Annual Workshop, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Chen , H.-C., & Crain, S. (2015, November). Prosody perception and realisation in Mandarin Chinese: Data from adults and children. Poster session presented at the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders Annual Workshop, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Ma, W., Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Gao, L. (2015, November). Vowel and tone processing in young tonal learners: A functional reorganization of tones. Poster session presented at the 40th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (BUCLD40), Boston, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Ma, W., Crain, S., & Zhan, L. (2015, November). Three-year-olds make rapid use of morphosyntactic cues in sentence comprehension. Poster session presented at the 40th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (BUCLD40), Boston, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2015, October). The basic meaning of logical words. Invited paper presented at the Pervasive Context: The Problems and the Solutions Workshop, Peking University, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2015, October). The naked truth about logical words. Invited paper presented at the CCD Developing Mind Series - Rational Inferences Workshop, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2015, September). Acquisition of negation and related phenomena. Invited symposium conducted at the Summer School on Negation, University of Göttingen, Germany.
  • Crain, S. (2015, September). Language universals and universal grammar. Keynote paper presented at the Workshop on Negation, University of Göttingen, Germany.
  • Gao, N., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2015, September). The interpretation of the interplay between 'or' and 'every' in Mandarin. Poster session presented at the 12th Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 12), Nantes, France.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2015, September). The use of linguistic cues in thematic role assignment by high-functioning children with autism. Paper presented at the 12th Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 12), Nantes, France.
  • Crain, S. (2015, August). Let the children speak. Invited paper presented at the Child MEG Lab for Brain Science Workshop and Opening Ceremony, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2015, July). Child language and the theory of Universal Grammar. Invited paper presented at the launch of the Centre for Research in Language Development throughout the Lifespan, University of Essex, Essex, UK.
  • Crain, S. (2015, July). Child language and the theory of Universal Grammar. Invited paper presented at the Contemporary Issues in Language Development and Neuroscience of Language Workshop, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
  • Ma, W., Zhou, P., Gao, L., & Crain, S. (2015, April). Tone and vowel processing in young tonal learners. Paper presented at the 42nd Annual Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference (EPC), Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2015, March). Truth value judgement task. Invited paper presented at the International Conference on Language Form and Function, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
  • Ma, W., Zhou, P., Gao, L., & Crain, S. (2015, March). Is that the tone I heard? Mandarin-speaking three-year-olds’ representation of lexical tones in novel words. Poster session presented at the 2015 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Ma, W., Zhou, P., Gao, L., & Crain, S. (2015, March). Mandarin-speaking three-year-olds’ representation of lexical tones in familiar words. Poster session presented at the 2015 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Ma, W., Gao, L., & Crain, S. (2015, March). Tone and segmental processing in Mandarin-speaking three-year-olds. Poster session presented at the 2015 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Ma, W., Gao, L., & Crain, S. (2015, March). Influences of vowel and tone change on three-year-old Mandarin-speakers’ learning of novel words. Poster session presented at the 2015 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2015, January). Free choice inferences are not conjunctive entailments in child language. Poster session presented at the Linguistic Society of America 2015 Annual Meeting, Portland, USA.
  • Crain, S., An, S., Zhou, P., and Thornton, R. (2015, January). Dou and disjunction in child Mandarin. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America 2015 Annual Meeting, Portland, USA.
  • Crain, S., Geckin, V., & Thornton, R. (2015, January). Disjunction and negation in Turkish: A comparison of children and adults. Poster session presented at the Linguistic Society of America 2015 Annual Meeting, Portland, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2014, December). Principles and parameters of logic. Invited paper presented at the Academy Colloquium - The Biology of Language: Evolution, Brain, Development, The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S. (2014, December). Principles and parameters of logic. Invited colloquium at the Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Crain, S. (2014, December). Principles and parameters of logic. Invited colloquium at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Crain, S. (2014, November). A principles and parameters approach to child Mandarin. Invited presentation given at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences Seminar, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
  • Crain, S. (2014, November). Models, minds and machines: Talks with Hisashi Kado. Invited presentation given at the Hisashi Kado Tribute Workshop, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Sowman, P., Crain, S., Harrison, E., & Johnson, B.W. (2014, November). Lateralization of brain activation in stuttering and non-stuttering preschool children: An MEG study of picture-naming. Poster session presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Annual Convention, Florida, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., Gao, L., & Tang, Y. (2014, November). Aspectual marking in Mandarin-speaking children with high-functioning autism. Poster session presented at the 39th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., Gao, L., & Tang, Y. (2014, November). The use of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high-functioning autism. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Formal Linguistics in conjunction with the International Conference: "Language Acquisition, Language Disorder and Language Assessment", Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2014, October). How to succeed at false belief tasks. Invited presentation given at the Australian Hearing Hub Conversations - Theory of Mind Workshop, Macquarie University.
  • Crain, S. (2014, October). The truth value judgment task. Invited presentation given at the Department of Cognitive Science Critical Issues Seminar, Macquarie University.
  • Crain, S. (2014, October). Language, plans and actions. Presentation given at the The Interface between Language & Perception in Action Workshop, Macquarie University.
  • Tieu, L., Romoli, J., Poortman, E., Winter, Y., & Crain, S. (2014, October). Boolean and non-Boolean conjunction in acquisition. Paper presented at the First Fall Meeting on Formal Linguistics: Languages and Cognition (RALFe 2014), École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.
  • Kennedy, L., Romoli, J., Tieu, L., Sevdali, C., Bill, C., Crain, S., & Folli, R. (2014, September). Broca’s aphasia and plurality inferences. Paper presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the Linguistics Association of Great Britain (LAGB), University of Oxford, UK.
  • Cheyne, D., Jobst, C., Tesan, G., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2014, August). Bridging the gap in the neuroimaging of early motor development: Evidence from MEG studies in preschool age children. Poster session presented at the 19th International Conference on Biomagnetism, Halifax, Canada.
  • Johnson, B.W., Cheyne, D., Tang, H., Sowman, P., & Crain, S. (2014, August). Development of auditory and sensorimotor brain rhythms studied with a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. In B. Ross & B. Johnson (Chair), Evoked and induced oscillation in the auditory, visual and sensorimotor systems - mechanisms and applications. Paper presented at the International Conference on Biomagnetism, Halifax, Canada.
  • Tang, H., Brock, J., Crain, S., & Johnson, B. (2014, August). Auditory envelope following responses in the mature and developing human brain. Poster session presented at the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders Annual Workshop, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Tang, H., Brock, J., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2014, August). Auditory envelope following responses in the mature and developing brain. Poster session presented at the 19th International Conference on Biomagnetism, Halifax, Canada.
  • Cheyne, D., Jobst, C., Tesan, G., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2014, July). Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience (ICON), Brisbane.
  • Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2014, July). Measurement of auditory brain function in cochlear implant recipients using a novel custom-engineered magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain imaging system. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience (ICON), Brisbane.
  • Tang, H., Brock, J., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2014, July). Auditory envelope following responses in the mature and developing human brain. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience (ICON), Brisbane.
  • An, S., Thornton, R., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2014, May). Mandarin-speaking children’s knowledge of the quantifier Dou. Paper presented at the 22nd Annual Conference of the International Association of Chinese Linguistics and the 26th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, College Park, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2014, May). Language acquisition and brain plasticity. Invited paper presented at the World Congress of Audiology, Brisbane.
  • Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2014, May). Measuring brain changes in hearing loss and its remediation. Invited paper presented at the World Congress of Audiology Satellite Symposium: "Hearing and the brain: Translating research into practice", Sydney.
  • Johnson, B.W., Tang, H., & Crain, S. (2014, May). Brain rhythms of action, imagery, music and language. Invited colloquium at the MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, Sydney.
  • Tieu, L., Bill, C., Romoli, J., & Crain, S. (2014, May). Plurality inferences are scalar implicatures. Poster session presented at the 24th Semantics and Linguistic Theory Conference (SALT24), New York, USA.
  • Bill, C., Romoli, J., Schwarz, F., & Crain, S. (2014, March). Indirect scalar implicatures are neither scalar implicatures nor presuppositions (or both). Poster session presented at the 38th Annual Penn Linguistics Conference, Pennsylvania, USA.
  • Bill, C., Romoli, J., Schwarz, F., & Crain, S. (2014, March). Indirect scalar implicatures are neither scalar implicatures nor presuppositions (or both). Poster session presented at the 27th Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing, Columbus, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2014, February). Child language: A biolinguistic perspective. Colloquium at the IDEALAB Winter School, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2014, February). Acquisition of syntax and semantics. Colloquium at the IDEALAB Winter School, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2014, January). Language acquisition in the absence of experience. Invited paper presented at the Language Science Festival, Rome, Italy.
  • Crain, S. (2013, November). The logic of child language. Presentation given at the Australia-China Science Research Fund Hearing Impairment and Language Acquisition Workshop, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2013, November). Science holds health care solutions. Invited presentation given at the Training Workshop for Special Education School Teachers, Beijing Haidian Special Education School, China.
  • Crain, S. (2013, November). Unification and free choice in child mandarin. Invited presentation given at the Quantification in Chinese: Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition Workshop, Chinese Academy of Social Science, Beijing, China.
  • Zhan, L.K., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2013, November). Going beyond the information that is perceived: The hypothetical property of “if”-conditionals in Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Psycholinguistics in China, Fuzhou, China.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Zhan, L.K. (2013, November). Anticipatory eye movements in children's processing of grammatical aspect. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, USA.
  • An, S., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2013, September). Parsing strategies and locality constraints in child mandarin. Poster session presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 2013), Oldenburg, Germany.
  • Crain, S. (2013, September). How to derive the basic meanings of logical expressions. Invited presentation given at the Concept, Composition and Experimental Semantics/Pragmatics Workshop, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S. (2013, September). Investigations in child logic. Invited colloquium at the Linguistics/Modern Languages Department, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S. (2013, September). Parsing, pragmatics and parameters. Keynote paper presented at the 5th Biennial Experimental Pragmatics Conference (XPRAG 2013), Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S. (2013, September). Unification in child language. Invited presentation given at the From Grammar to Meaning: The Spontaneous Logicality of Language Workshop, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain.
  • Crain, S. (2013, September). How to do things with language. Invited presentation given at the Australian Association of Audiologists in Private Practice Inc Hearing and Cognition: Theory, Research Workshop, The University of Sydney, Sydney.
  • Liao, M., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2013, September). Children’s acquisition of shenme in Mandarin downward entailing context. Poster session presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 2013), Oldenburg, Germany.
  • Moscati, V., Romoli, J., & Crain, S. (2013, September). Even a pragmatic child always thinks about impossible worlds: Modals, quantifiers and discourse-pragmatic factors in scope assignment. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 2013), Oldenburg, Germany.
  • Romoli, J., Moscati, V., & Crain, S. (2013, September). When pragmatics is not enough: Modals, quantifiers and a bias for logical strength in children. Paper presented at the 5th biennial Experimental Pragmatics conference (XPRAG), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Romoli, J., Moscati, V., & Crain, S. (2013, September). When pragmatics is not enough: Modals, quantifiers and a bias for logical strength in children. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 2013), Oldenburg, Germany.
  • Crain, S. (2013, August). Investigations in child language. Invited presentation given at the Wu Ta-You Science Camp, National Taiwan University, The Experimental Forest, Taiwan.
  • Crain, S. (2013, August). Principles and parameters of logic in human languages. Invited colloquium at the Department of Linguistics Seminar Series, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2013, July). Cut-and-paste meets linguistic theory. Paper presented at the Linguistic Theory and its Applications: Comparative Applied Studies Symposium, 19th International Congress of Linguists (19ICL), Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2013, July). Child MEG for the study of language acquisition and language impairment. Paper presented at the Innovations in the Study of Language Acquisition and Language Impairment Symposium, 19th International Congress of Linguists (19ICL), Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2013, July). Introduction to linguistics and language acquisition. Symposium conducted at the International Centre for Child Language Health Summer School, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Smith-Lock, K.M., & Crain, S. (2013, July). How children with specific language impairment interpret scope ambiguities. Paper presented at the 19th International Congress of Linguists (19ICL), Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Smith-Lock, K.M., Notley, A., Delane, L., & Crain, S. (2013, July). The independence of relative clause comprehension in children with specific language impairment. Paper presented at the 19th International Congress of Linguists (19ICL), Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Johnson, B.W., Tesan, G., He, W., & Crain, S. (2013, June). MEG neuroimaging of perceptual, motor and cognitive brain function in preschool-aged children. Paper presented at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (HBM), Seattle, USA.
  • Liao, M., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2013, June). Children’s interpretation of disjunction in Mandarin comparatives. Paper presented at the 21st International Association of Chinese Linguistics (IACL 21), Taiwan.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2013, June). Lexical access in preschool children: Localising the N400m. Paper presented at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (HBM), Seattle, USA.
  • Thornton, R., Crain, S., Rombough, K., McKenzie, J., Orton, L., & Malin, S. (2013, June). Children’s acquisition of doesn’t in negative sentences. Paper presented at the Speech Pathology Australia National Conference, Broadbeach.
  • Crain, S. (2013, May). Brain imaging reveals modularity in human languages. Paper presented at the Workshop on Research Methods and Applications in Auditory Physiology: Measuring Auditory Processing from Brainstem to Auditory Cortex and Beyond, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2013, May). The architecture of human language. Invited symposium conducted at the Schizophrenia Awareness Week Symposium: "Partnerships in Recovery", University of Technology, Sydney.
  • Zhou, P., Romoli, J., & Crain, S. (2013, May). Children's knowledge of alternatives. Paper presented at the 23rd Semantics and Linguistic Theory Conference (SALT23), Santa Cruz, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2013, April). Breaking and entering the language faculty. Keynote paper presented at the Australian Hearing Hub Inaugural Conference, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2013, April). Language, logic and learnability. Invited colloquium at the Department of Linguistics Psychobabble Meeting, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2013, April). Focus and scope in child language. Invited colloquium at the Department of Linguistics Semantic Babble Meeting, University of California, San Diego, USA.
  • Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2013, April). Measurement of brain function in cochlear implant recipients with a custom-engineered MEG system. Paper presented at the Australian Hearing Hub Inaugural Conference: "Language, literacy and cognition in children with a hearing impairment" Workshop, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2013, April). Lexical access in 4 year-olds: A magnetoencephalographic study. Paper presented at the Australian Hearing Hub Inaugural Conference: "Language, literacy and cognition in children with a hearing impairment" Workshop, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Panizza, D., Notley, A., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2012, November). When children are as logical as adults: Entailment patterns affect the interpretation of numerals in language development. Presentation given at the 37th Annual Boston University Conference on Child Language, Boston, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2012, November). The logic of double negation in child language. Paper presented at the 37th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2012, October). Lexical aspect and the use of negation by Mandarin-speaking children. Paper presented at the 5th Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition - North America (GALANA5), Lawrence, USA.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2012, October). When two negatives make a positive in child Mandarin. Paper presented at the 5th Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition - North America (GALANA5), Lawrence, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2012, September). More than one method: Modularity in typical and atypical in language acquisition. Invited presentation given at the Workshop on Language Development in Typical and Atypical Populations, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2012, September). Science holds health-care solutions. Keynote paper presented at the Beijing Language and Culture University’s 50th Anniversary Celebration, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2012, September). Remarks on linguistic theory. Presentation given at the Opening of the International Center for Child Language Health, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Miller Amberber, A., Nickels, L., Coltheart, M. & Crain, S. (2012, September). Subcortical links in bilingual language representation. Poster session presented at the University of New South Wales Brain Sciences Symposium, Sydney.
  • Zhan, L.K., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2012, September). The anticipatory effects of focus operators: A visual-world eye-tracking experiment. Paper presented at the 9th Conference of Generative Linguistics in the Old World Asia (GLOW-in-Asia IX), Mie University, Japan.
  • Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2012, August). The CI MEG project at the Hearing Hub. Invited presentation given at the Japan Study Group Meeting, Cochlear Technology and Research Lab, Sydney.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2012, August). Measurement of cognitive processes in pre-school children with a custom-sized MEG. Paper presented at the International Conference on Biomagnetism, Paris, France.
  • Crain, S. (2012, June). MEG: Measuring language processing in the human brain (whirlwind tour). Invited presentation given at the Global Research Symposium, Cochlear Ltd, Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2012, June). Focus and scope in child language. Invited paper presented at the 13th International Symposium on Chinese Language and Linguistics (IsCLL13), National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Crain, S. (2012, June). Questions to answer using child MEG: When, where and why? Presentation given at the Workshop on Language and Brain, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2012, June). Language, logic and learnability. Invited colloquium at the Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai, China.
  • Crain, S. (2012, June). Language, logic and learnability. Invited presentation given at the Workshop on Syntax and Semantics in China (SSiC), Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2012, June). The logic of human languages. Invited colloquium at the 4th Applied Linguistics Seminar, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
  • Johnson, B.W., Crain, S., Tesan, G., & Uehara, G. (2012, June). Measurement of brain function in special populations with custom-engineered MEG systems. Poster session presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2012, May). When I was a child… I reasoned like a child. Invited colloquium at the Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Zhan, L.K. (2012, March). Children’s pragmatic use of prosody in sentence processing. Paper presented at the 35th Generative Linguistics in the Old World (GLOW) Workshop: Production and Perception of Prosodically-Encoded Information Structure, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
  • Crain, S. (2012, February). Principles and parameters of scope across languages. Invited colloquium at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2012, February). MEG for use with cochlear implant patients. Invited presentation given at the Workshop on Cochlear Implants, Cochlear Ltd, Sydney.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T., Zhou, P., & Notley, A. (2012, January). Polarity meets focus in child language. Paper presented at the 86th Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Portland, USA.
  • Thornton, R., Crain, S., Zhou, P., Notley, A., & Goro, T. (2012, January). The latest scoop on scope in child language. Paper presented at the 86th Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Portland, USA.
  • Crain, S. (2011, December). Some Principles and Parameters of Scope. Keynote paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Formal Linguistics, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangdong, China.
  • Crain, S. (2011, December). Child language: A biolinguistic perspective. Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at The College of Foreign Languages, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.
  • Crain, S. (2011, December). Stay Connected. Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at The College of Foreign Languages, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.
  • Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2011, December). Principles and parameters of scope in child language. Invited presentation given at the Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2011, December). The Acquisition of the NPI renhe ‘any’ in Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the 5th International conference on Formal Linguistics, Guangzhou, China.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2011, December). Evidence for automatic linguistic processing in preschool children: a magnetoencephalography study. Paper presented at the Australasian Cognitive Neuroscience Conference - 21st Meeting of the Australasian Society for Psychophysiology, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T., Notley, A., & Zhou, P. (2011, September). A parametric account of scope in child language. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 2011), Thessaloniki, Greece.
  • Johnson, B.W., Crain, S., Tesan, G., & Reid, M. (2011, September). In search of the LAD: A cross-language MEG brain imaging study. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 2011), Thessaloniki, Greece.
  • Miller Amberber, A., Nickels, L., Crain, S. & Coltheart, M. (2011, September). Switching languages in bilingual aphasia: evidence of grammatical impairment from Rarotongan, Maltese, French and English. Paper presented at the 12th International Science of Aphasia Conference, Barcelona.
  • Crain, S. (2011, August). All languages are not the same. Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at The University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
  • Huang, A. & Crain, S. (2011, August). Scope interaction between wh-indefinites and negation: Insights from language acquisition. Poster session presented at the Harvard-Australia Workshop on: Language, Learning and Logic, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
  • Notley, A., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2011, August). Children's interpretation of the logical words 'not', 'every', and 'or'. Poster session presented at the Harvard-Australia Workshop on Language, Learning and Logic, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Notley, A., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2011, July). Children's interpretation of the logical words 'not', 'every', and 'or'. Poster session presented at the 12th International Congress for the Study of Child Language, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
  • Crain, S. (2011, June). How Children Interpret Conditionals. Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at Australian National University, Canberra.
  • Crain, S. (2011, June). How Children Interpret Conditionals. Invited colloquium at the the Colloquia at Australian National University, Canberra.
  • Johnson, B.W., McArthur, G., Reid, M., Brock, J., & Crain, S. (2011, June). A robust index of lateralized brain function in typically and atypically developing children Paper presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Quebec.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B. & Crain, S. (2011, June). An MEG study of the negative polarity item any to assess sentence-level semantic processing. Poster session presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Quebec.
  • Tham, W., Reid, M., Tesan, G. Johnson, B., & Crain, S. (2011, June). Rocket-ship MEG: an interactive video game environment to facilitate brain measurements in children. Poster session presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Quebec.
  • Crain, S. (2011, May). Unification in Child Language. Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at University of California, San Diego.
  • Crain, S. (2011, May). Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at LaTrobe University, Melbourne.
  • Crain, S. (2011, April). Scope Parameters. Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing.
  • Crain, S. (2011, April). Stay Connected. Invited colloquium at the Colloquia at University of Western Australia, Perth.
  • Zhou, P., Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2010, October). The role of prosody in children's ambiguity resolution: A view from Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the 13th China International Conference on Contemporary Linguistics, Shanghai, China.
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., Gao, L.Q., & Zhan, L.K. (2010, September). The role of prosody in children's focus identification. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition - North America 4 (GALANA-4), Toronto, Canada.
  • Huang, A., Akagi, N., & Crain, S. (2010, August). Identification of two types of wh-indefinites in Mandarin Chinese: Insights from language acquisition. Paper presented at the 6th International Workshop on Theoretical East Asian Linguistics (TEAL-6), Peking University, China.
  • Raicevich, G., Burwood, E., Dillon, H., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2010, August). Wide band pneumatic sound system for MEG. Paper presented at the Proceedings of 20th International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2010, Sydney, Australia.
  • Zhou, P., Su, Y., Crain, S., Gao, L.Q., & Zhan, L.K. (2010, August). Children's use of prosodic information in ambiguity resolution. Paper presented at the 8th Conference of Generative Linguistics in the Old World Asia (GLOW-in-Asia 8), Beijing, China.
  • Raicevich, G., Burwood, E., Dillon, H., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2010, May). Wideband pneumatic stereo audio system for MEG and MRI. Paper presented at the Audiology Australia XIX National Conference, Sydney, Australia.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2010, May). The acquisition of disjunction and conditionals in Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Chinese Linguistics, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2010, May). The acquisition of disjunction and conditionals in Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the 22nd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Crain, S. & Huang, A. (2010, April). Universal Grammar versus linguistic diversity: Wh-phrases. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Language Acquisition and Cognitive Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2010, April). The acquisition of the NPI renhe 'any' in Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Language Acquisition and Cognitive Science, Beijing Language and Culture University, China.
  • Reid, M., Johnson, B.W., Tesan, G., Thornton, R. and Crain, S. (2010, April). Functional brain imaging of pre-school aged children using a child-sized whole head MEG system. Paper presented at the 37th Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference, Melbourne.
  • Sowman, P., Johnson, B.W., Reid, M., Harrison, W., & Crain, S. (2010, April). Brain dynamics of picture naming in preschoolers: An MEG study. Poster session presented at the EPC10 Australian Experimental Psychology Conference, Melbourne.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2010, April). Children's understanding of disjunction in Mandarin conditional sentences. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Mandarin Acquisition and Cognition, Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Zhou, P., Su, Y., Crain, S., Gao, L.Q., & Zhan, L.K. (2010, April). The role of prosody in children's ambiguity resolution: A view from Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Chinese Acquisition and Cognition, Beijing, China.
  • Imada, T., Pihko, E., Taulu, S., Bosseler, A., Ahonen, A., Makela, J., Kuhl, P.K., Huotilainen, M., Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2010, March). Recording and analysis of perceptual/cognitive MEG/EEG responses from neonates/infants/children. Paper presented at the BioMag2010, International Conference on Biomagnetism, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
  • Johnson, B.W., & Crain, S. (2010, March). Studies of perception and cognition in preschool children using a custom sized whole head MEG. Invited paper presented at the Symposium on Human Brain Development, Satellite to BioMag2010, International Conference on Biomagnetism, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., Reid, M., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2010, March). Using a whole-head child MEG to assess language development in four year old children. Poster session presented at the BioMag2010, International Conference on Biomagnetism, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
  • Peter, V., McArthur, G., Thompson, W., & Crain, S. (2009, November). Neural processing of phrase boundaries in speech and music. Poster session presented at the Psychophysiology Society Conference, University of Newcastle, Australia.
  • Tsai, P.-S., Tzeng, O.J.-L., Crain, S., Tesan, G., & Wu, D.H. (2009, October). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate semantic processing of negative polarity items. Paper presented at the International Conference on the Processing of East Asian Languages, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S. (2009, September). Recent advances in brain science. Presentation given at the Leaders In Deaf Education Conference, Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2009, September). Dou-quantification in child Mandarin. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA 2009), Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Peter, V., McArthur, G., Thompson, W. F., & Crain, S. (2009, August). ERP correlates of phrase boundary perception in speech and music. Presentation given at the MARCS Wednesday Afternoon Research Colloquium, University of Western Sydney, Australia.
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., Jensen, B., & Crain, S. (2009, July). Children's interpretation of before and or in English and Mandarin Chinese. Paper presented at the The 4th International Conference on Formal Linguistics., Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing, China.
  • Crain, S., Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W. & Thornton, R. (2009, June). What MEG reveals about children's linguistic competence. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language (GALA 2009), Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Peter, V., McArthur, G., Thompson, W.F., & Crain, S. (2009, April). ERP correlates of phrase boundary perception in speech and music. Poster session presented at the 36th Australasian Experimental Psychology, Wollongong, Australia.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2009, April). Children's Insensitivity to Scalar Implicatures in Mandarin Chinese. Poster session presented at the Experimental Pragmatics 2009 Conference (XPRAG 2009), Lyon, France.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2009, April). Children's Knowledge of Downward Entailment in Mandarin Chinese. Invited presentation given at the Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2009, April). Children's Interpretation of wh-words in downward entailing contexts vs. non-downward entailing contexts. Invited presentation given at the Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China.
  • Notley, A. Zhou, P, Jensen, B., & Crain, S. (2009, March). Children's interpretation of before and or in English and Mandarin Chinese Poster session presented at the Festschrift in honour of Max Coltheart, Macquarie University, Australia.
  • Su, Y., & Crain, S. (2009, March). Children's Understanding of an Asymmetric Universal in Mandarin Chinese. Presentation given at the 10th Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., Jensen, B., & Crain, S. (2009, February). Children's Interpretation of 'Before' and 'Or' in English and Mandarin Chinese Presentation given at the 7th Conference on Generative Linguistics in the Old World (GLOW in Asia), English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad, India.
  • Notley, A. & Crain, S. (2009, January). The earliest stages in the acquisition of focus expressions. Presentation given at the Linguistic Society of America, San Francisco, USA.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2009, January). Focus Identification in Child Mandarin. Paper presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, San Francisco, California, United States.
  • Amberber, A.M., Nickels, L., Coltheart, M., & Crain, S. (2008, September). Language switching in bilingual aphasia: what is "pathological" code-switching? Paper presented at the Aphasiology Symposium of Australia, Brisbane, Australia.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2008, September). Focus in Child Language: Evidence from the Acquisition of Chinese. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition - North America 3, University of Connecticut in Storrs, United States.
  • Tesan, G., & Crain, S. (2008, August). An MEG study of the Negative Polarity Item any: lexical and postlexical processing. Poster session presented at the BIOMAG 2008, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Crain, S. (2008, July). Linguistic generalizations in child language. Keynote paper presented at the Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse: the Theory of the Interface: In memory of Tanya Reinhart, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
  • Jensen, B., Crain, S., Notley, A., & Ursini, F. (2008, July). Universal quantification in child English: no symmetry required. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Linguistics Society, University of Sydney.
  • Tesan, G., & Crain, S. (2008, June). Processing Negative Polarity Items in the absence of directed attention: evidence from MEG. Poster session presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Tesan, G., & Crain, S. (2008, March). Processing Negative Polarity Items: an MEG study. Poster session presented at the 35th Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference Conference, Fremantle, Australia.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2008, March). Scope Assignment in Chinese: Why Children and Adults differ. Paper presented at the 9th Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Crain, S. (2007, December). Workshop on acquisition of functional categories in Asian languages. Keynote paper presented at the 6th Conference on Generative Linguistics in the Old World (GLOW in Asia), Hong Kong.
  • Crain, S. (2007, September). Semantic universals in child/adult language. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Tesan, G. & Crain, S. (2007, September). Licensing Negative Polarity Items: evidence from magnetoencephalography. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society (ALS), Adelaide.
  • Crain, S. (2007, January). Plenary Speaker. Keynote paper presented at the Portuguese Linguistic Society Annual Meeting, Evora, Portugal.
  • Crain, S. (2006, June). Has brain imaging told us anything about language (so far)? Invited presentation given at the fMRI Experience 8, University of Melbourne.
  • Crain, S. (2006, January). Deep semantic structure. Invited presentation given at the Latsis Colloquium, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Crain, S. (2005, December). On the existence of cognitive science. Invited presentation given at the International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
  • Crain, S. (2005, December). Language and Reality: Themes from the Work of Michael Devitt. Invited presentation given at the Department of Philosophy Workshop, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  • Crain, S. (2005, December). Colloquium at the International Conference on cognitive Neuroscience, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
  • Crain, S. (2005, September). Presentation given at the 3rd International Conference on Formal Lingusitics, and the Second Yuelu Workshop on Language Acquisition, Changsha, China.
  • Crain, S. (2005, April). Experimental Pragmatics: Exploring the Cognitive Basis of Conversation. Invited presentation given at the University of Cambridge, University of Cambridge.
  • Crain, S. (2004, January). Keynote paper presented at the International Conference on Language and Cognition, Coffs Harbour.
  • Meroni, L., Minai, U., Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2003, September). If everybody knows, then every child knows. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S. (2003, January). Keynote paper presented at the First Yuelu Language Acquisition Workshop, Changsha, China.
  • Crain, S. (2003, January). Keynote paper presented at the Australian Linguistic Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
  • Crain, S. (2003, January). Invited presentation given at the "Crosslinguistic data and theories of meaning" workshop, Max Plank Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S. (2003, January). Polarity, scalar phenomena, implicatures: At the interface between the grammar and the Cognitive System. Invited presentation given at the , University of Milan-Bicocca.
  • Crain, S. (2003, January). Invited presentation given at the Polarity/Scalarity Workshop, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
  • Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2003, January). How to eliminate garden-path effects. Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics, Keio University, Japan.
  • Crain, S. (2002, January). Invited presentation given at the "SLI Genes, Development and Cognitive Neuroscience" workshop, University College London, London, UK.
  • Crain, S. (2002, January). Children's use of referential context. Paper presented at the Annual Boston University Conference on Child Language Development, Boston, MA.
  • Crain, S. (2001, January). Keynote paper presented at the Second Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics, Keio University.
  • Crain, S. (2001, January). Presentation given at the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Washington.
  • Crain, S., Meroni, L., Chierchia, G., & Guasti, M.T. (2001, January). Scalar implicatures fail to arise for any child or adult. Paper presented at the Second Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics, Keio University.
  • Gennari, S., Crain, S., & Meroni, L. (2001, January). Rapid relief from ambiguity. Paper presented at the 14th Annual CUNY Conference on Sentence Processing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2001, January). Downward entailment in child language. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Washington DC.
  • Gualmini, A., Meroni, L., Guasti, M.T., Chierchia, G., & Crain, S. (2001, January). Investigations on the semantics/pragmatics interface in child language. Paper presented at the Formal Pragmatics, Berlin, Germany.
  • Meroni, L., Crain, S., & Gualmini, A., (2001, January). Felicity conditions and on-line interpretation of sentences with quantified NPs. Paper presented at the 14th Annual CUNY Conference on Sentence Processing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Meroni, L., Guasti, M.T., Chierchia, G., Crain, S., & Gualmini, A. (2001, January). The logic behind child language. Presentation given at the Generative Linguistics and Language Acquisition, Portugal.
  • Meroni, L., Gulamini, A., & Crain, S. (2001, January). Conversational implicatures and computational complexity in child language. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Washington DC.
  • Chierchia, G., Crain, S., Guasti, M.T., Gualmini, A., & Meroni, L. (2000, January). The acquisition of disjunction: Evidence for a grammatical view of scalar implicatures. Paper presented at the 25th Annual Boston University conference on child language development, Boston, MA.
  • Crain, S. (2000, January). Invited paper presented at the "Linguistics in the next decade" conference, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Crain, S. & Gualmini, A. (2000, January). Invited presentation given at the "Semantics meets acquisition" conference, Max Plank Institute fur Psycholinguistics, The Net.
  • Crain, S., Meroni, L., & Gualmini, A. (2000, January). Universal quantification is strong in children. Paper presented at the 24th Penn Linguistics Colloquium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2000, January). Little logicians at work: Disjunction and the indefinite article in child language. Paper presented at the 24th Penn Linguistics Colloquium, University of Pennsylvania, PA.
  • Gualmini, A., Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2000, January). The acquisition of disjunction: Evidence from modal verbs. Paper presented at the 24th Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, MA.
  • Meroni, L., Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2000, January). Universal quantification is strong and conservative in children. Paper presented at the XXX Incontro di Grammatica Generativa, Rome, Italy.
  • Olsen, M.B., & Crain, S. (2000, January). Conditional acquisition. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Chicago, IL.
  • Crain, S. (1999, January). Presentation given at the 24th Annual Boston University Conference on Child Language Development, Boston, MA.
  • Crain, S. (1999, January). Invited paper presented at the International Conference on Language Acquisition and Language Breakdown, UiL OTS Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S. & Gualmini, A. (1999, January). Presentation given at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition, Potsdam, Germany.
  • Gualmini, A., Crain, S., & Meroni, L. (1999, January). The acquisition of disjunction: Evidence from conditional sentences. Paper presented at the 24th Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, MA.
  • Gualmini, A., Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (1999, January). The acquisition of disjunction: Evidence from modal verbs. Paper presented at the 30th North East Linguistic Society Conference, New Brunswick, NJ.
  • Armon-Lotem, S., & Crain, S. (1998, January). Interface conditions on child language: A crosslinguistic look at Genitives. Paper presented at the 22nd Annual University of Pennsylvania Linguistics Colloquium, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Crain, S. (1998, January). Presentation given at the Australian Linguistics Institute, Brisbane.
  • Crain, S. (1998, January). Invited presentation given at the NRC Workshop on Language, Reading and Memory, University of New England, Armidale.
  • Crain, S. (1998, January). Invited presentation given at the Workshop on Acquisition of Semantics, International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, Italy.
  • Ni, W., Shankweiler, D., Conway-Palumbo, L., Harris, K.S., Fulbright, R.K., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (1998, January). Elicitation of verbs and inflections in nonfluent aphasia. Poster session presented at the 36th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Aphasia, Santa Fe, NM.
  • Chierchia, G., Crain, S., Guasti, M.T., & Thornton, R. (1997, January). "Some" and "Or": A study on the emergence of Logical Form. Paper presented at the 22nd Annual Boston University conference on child language development, Boston, MA.
  • Crain, S. (1997, January). Invited presentation given at the "Parameters in Semantics" Workshop, Linguistics Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
  • Crain, S. (1997, January). Invited presentation given at the "Specific Language Impairment in Children: Cross-linguistic Perspectives" Workshop, Ehrenburg, Germany.
  • Crain, S., Conway, L. & Thornton, R. (1995, September). Semantic distinctions in child language. Paper presented at the Groningen Assembly on Child Language Acquisition, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R. Boster, C. & Conway, L. (1994, September). Quantification without qualification. Paper presented at the ESCOL, Columbia, United States.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1993, November). Workshop on experimental methodologies for language acquisition. Colloquium at the UCLA, Department of Linguistics, Los Angeles, United States.
  • Crain, S. & Thornton, R. (1990, April). Levels of representation in child grammar. Paper presented at the 13th GLOW Colloquium, Cambridge, UK.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1989, December). Children's use of bound pronouns. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America, Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., United States.
  • Crain, S. & Thornton, R. (1988, December). The acquisition of wanna contraction. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, United States.
  • Crain, S. & Thornton, R. (1988, October). Innateness and wh-movement. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, United States.
  • Crain, S. & Thornton, R. (1988, June). Elicited Production: Recharting the course of language acquisition. Paper presented at the Biobehavioral Foundations of Language Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Washington D.C., United States.
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R. & Murasugi, K. (1987, October). Capturing the evasive passive. Paper presented at the 12th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, United States.

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