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Professor Leigh Simmons

BSc Nottingham, PhD Nottingham, FAA .

Associate Investigator

Contact Details

Phone : +61 8 6488 2221
Fax : +61 8 6488 1029
email : leigh.simmons@uwa.edu.au
Homepage : http://www.ceb.uwa.edu.au/our_people/leigh_simmons
ORCID : http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0562-1474

External Address

Centre for Evolutionary Biology
The University of Western Australia

Recent External Appointments

  • Editorial Board, Australian Journal of Entomology. (2012 continuing)
  • Editor-in-Chief, Behavioural Ecology. (2012 continuing)
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Ethology. (2011 continuing)
  • Editor, Behavioral Ecology. (2011)
  • Fellow, Australian Academy of Science. (2009 continuing)
  • Associate Editor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biological Sciences. (2008 continuing)
  • Editor, Advances in the Study of Behavior. (2008 continuing)
  • Associate Editor, Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. (1996 - 2012)

External Memberships

  • Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour
  • Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society of London
  • International Society for Behavioural Ecology
  • European Society for Evolutionary Biology
  • Australasian Evolution Society
  • Society for the Study of Evolution

Recent Grants Awarded

  • ARC Discovery Project Grant [DP160100797] (2016 - 2019) "Evolution of the mammalian baculum." Simmons, L. ($516,700)
  • UWA-UQ Bilateral Research Collaboration Award (2014) "Evolutionary ecology of male reproduction in an arid zone mammal with an extreme life history." Simmons, L., & Fisher, D. ($18,000)
  • UWA Research Collaboration Award (2014) "Exploring tradeoffs between sexual traits." Simmons, L., & Fitzpatrick, J. ($10,000)
  • Spanish Ministry of Economy (National Plan projects) (2013 - 2015) "The evolution of polyandry: Mechanisms, genetic variation and sexually selected processes." Euro 120,000 Garcia-Gonzalex, F., & Simmons, L. ($150,000)
  • ARC Discovery Project (2013 - 2015) "Testing new theoretical models of sperm allocation: does competition for mates compromise male fertility?" Simmons, L., & Roberts, D. ($368,000)
  • ARC Discovery Project Grant and Australian Professorial Fellowship [DP110104594] (2011 - 2015) "The evolutionary biology of seminal fluid." Simmons, L. ($1,050,000)

Media Engagement

Selected Publications

Books

  • Shuker, D.M., & Simmons, L.W. (Eds.). (2014). The evolution of insect mating systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Brockman, H.J., Roper, T.J., Naguib, M., Wynne-Edwards, K.E., Mitani, J.C., & Simmons, L.W. (Eds.). (2013). Advances in the Study of Behavior [Volume 45]. London: Academic Press.
  • Brockman, H.J., Roper, T.J., Naguib, M., Wynne-Edwards, K.E., Mitani, J.C., & Simmons, L.W. (Eds.). (2012). Advances in the Study of Behavior [Volume 44]. London: Academic Press.
  • Brockman, H.J., Roper, T.J., Naguib, M., Wynne-Edwards, K.E., Mitani, J.C. & Simmons, L.W. (Eds.). (2011). Advances in the Study of Behavior [Volume 43]. London: Academic Press.
  • Simmons, L.W. & Ridsdill Smith, T.J. (Eds.). (2011). Ecology and evolution of dung beetles. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Brockman, H.J., Roper, T.J., Naguib, M., Wynne-Edwards, K.E., Mitani, J.C. & Simmons, L.W. (Eds.). (2010). Advances in the Study of Behavior [Volume 41]. London: Academic Press.
  • Brockman, H.J., Roper, T.J., Naguib, M., Wynne-Edwards, K.E., Mitani, J.C., & Simmons, L.W. (Eds.). (2009). Advances in the Study of Behavior [Volume 39]. London: Academic Press.
  • Lucas, J.R., & Simmons, L.W. (Eds.). (2006). Essays in animal behaviour: Celebrating 50 years of animal behaviour. London: Elsevier.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2001). Sperm competition and its evolutionary consequences in the insects. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Book Chapters

  • Simmons, L.W. (2013). Reproductive system: male. In S.J. Simpson & A.E. Douglas (Eds.), The insects: Structure and function (5th ed., pp. 282-312). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2013). Abdomen. In S.J. Simpson & A.E. Douglas (Eds.), The insects: Structure and function (5th ed., pp. 269-281). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2013). Reproductive system: female. In S.J. Simpson & A.E. Douglas (Eds.), The insects: Structure and function (5th ed., pp. 313-346). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ridsdill-Smith, J., & Simmons, L.W. (2009). Dung beetles. In V.H. Resh & R.T. Cardé (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Insects (pp. 304-307). USA: Elsevier Science.
  • Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2007). Symmetry, attractiveness and sexual dimorphism. In R.I.M. Dunbar & L. Barrett (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Periodicals

  • Foo, Y.Z., Nakagawa, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2017). The effects of sex hormones on immune function: A meta-analysis. Biological Reviews, 92(1), 551-571. doi:10.1111/brv.12243
  • Foo, Y.Z., Rhodes, G. & Simmons, L.W. (2017). The carotenoid beta-carotene enhances facial colour, attractiveness and perceived health, but not actual health, in humans. Behavioral Ecology, 28(2), 570-578. doi:10.1093/beheco/arw188
  • Foo, Y.Z., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2017). The relationship between health and mating success in humans. Royal Society Open Science, 4, 160603. doi:10.1098/rsos.160603
  • Foo, Y.Z., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2017). Predictors of facial attractiveness and health in humans. Scientific Reports, 7, 39731. doi:10.1038/srep39731
  • Hare, R., Schlatter, S, Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2017). Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings, or unfaithfulness judgments of opposite sex faces. Royal Society Open Science, 4, 160831. doi:10.1098/rsos.160831
  • Leivers, S., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2015). Men’s sexual faithfulness judgments may contain a kernel of truth. PLoS One, 10(8), e0134007. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134007
  • Leivers, S., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). Human sperm competition: Playing a defensive strategy. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 46, 1–44. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-800286-5.00001-8
  • Leivers, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). Context-dependent relationship between a composite measure of men's mate value and ejaculate quality. Behavioral Ecology, 25(5), 1115-1122. doi:10.1093/beheco/aru093
  • Leivers, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). Sperm competition in humans: Mate guarding behavior negatively correlates with ejaculate quality. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e108099. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108099
  • Lupold, S., Tomkins, J.L., Simmons, L.W., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (2014). Female monopolization mediates the relationship between pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits. Nature Communications, 5, 3184. doi:10.1038/ncomms4184
  • McNamara, K.B., van Lieshout, E., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). Females suffer a reduction in the viability of stored sperm following an immune challenge. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27(1), 133-140. doi:10.1111/jeb.12278
  • McNamara, K.B., van Lieshout, E., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). The effect of maternal and paternal immune challenge on offspring immunity and reproduction in a cricket. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27(6), 1020-1028. doi:10.1111/jeb.12376
  • McNamara, K.B., van Lieshout, E., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). A test of the sexy-sperm and good-sperm hypotheses for the evolution of polyandry. Behavioral Ecology, 25(4), 989-995. doi:10.1093/beheco/aru067
  • Robinson, S.P., Simmons, L.W., & Kennington, W.J. (2014). Sex-biased mortality associated with inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14, 51. doi://10.1186/1471-2148-14-51
  • Simpson, J.L., Humphries, S., Evans, J.P., Simmons, L.W., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (2014). Relationships between sperm length and speed differ among three internally and three externally fertilizing species. Evolution, 68(1), 92-104. doi:10.1111/evo.12199
  • van Lieshout, E., McNamara, K.B., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). Rapid loss of behavioral plasticity and immunocompetence under intense sexual selection. Evolution, 68(9), 2550-8. doi://10.1111/evo.12422
  • van Lieshout, E., McNamara, K.B., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates? PLoS ONE, 9(4), e95747. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095747
  • Zuk, M., Garcia-Gonzalez, F., Herberstein, M.E., & Simmons, L.W. (2014). Model systems, taxonomic bias, and sexual selection: Beyond Drosophila. Annual Review of Entomology, 59, 321-338. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162014
  • Kvarnemo, C., & Simmons, L.W. (2013). Polyandry as a mediator of sexual selection before and after mating. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 368, 20120042. doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0042
  • McNamara, K.B., van Lieshout, E., Jomes, T.M., & Simmons, L.W. (2013). Age-dependent trade-offs between immunity and male, but not female, reproduction. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 235-244. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2012.02018.x
  • Parker, G.A., Lessells, C.M., & Simmons, L.W. (2013). Sperm competition games: a general model for precopulatory male-male competition. Evolution, 67, 95-109. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01741x
  • Rhodes, G., Morley, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2013). Women can judge sexual unfaithfulness from unfamiliar men’s faces. Biology Letters, 9(1), 20120908. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0908
  • Simmons, L.W., Tan, Y.-F., & Millar, A.H. (2013). Sperm and seminal fluid proteomes of the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: identification of novel proteins transferred to females at mating. Insect Molecular Biology, 22, 115-130. doi:10.1111/imb.12007
  • Buzatto, B.A., Simmons, L.W., & Tomkins, J.L. (2012). Genetic variation underlying the expression of a polyphenism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25, 745-758.
  • Buzatto, B.A., Simmons, L.W., & Tomkins, J.L. (2012). Paternal effects on the expression of a male dimorphism. Evolution, 66, 3167-3178. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01662.x
  • Buzatto, B.A.,Tomkins, J.L., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Maternal effects on male weaponary: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12, 118. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-118
  • Dowling, D.K., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Ejaculate economics: testing the effects of male sexual history on the trade-off between sperm and immune function in Australian crickets. PLoS One, 7, e30172. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031772
  • Firman, R.C., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Male house mice evolving with postcopulatory sexual selection sire embryos with increased viability. Ecology Letters, 15, 42-46.
  • Fitzpatrick, J.L., Almbro, M., Gonzalez-Voyer, A., Kolm, N., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Male contest competition and the coevolution of weaponary and testes in pinnipeds. Evolution, 66, 3595-3604. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01713.x
  • Fitzpatrick, J.L., Simmons, L.W., & Evans, J.P. (2012). Complex patterns of multivariate selection on the ejaculate of a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate. Evolution, 66, 2451-2460.
  • Garcia-Gonzalez, F., Simmons, L.W., Tomkins, J.L., Kotiaho, J.S., & Evans, J.P. (2012). Comparing evolvabilities: common errors surrounding the calculation and use of coefficients of additive genetic variation. Evolution, 66, 2341-2349.
  • House, C.M., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). The genetics of primary and secondary sexual character trade-offs in a horned beetle. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25, 1711-1717.
  • Jaffe, R., Garcia-Gonzalez, F., den Boer, S.P.A., Simmons, L.W., & Baer, B. (2012). Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects: what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection? Evolution, 66, 3778-3788. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01721.x
  • Robinson, S.P., Kennington, W.J., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Assortative mating for relatedness in a large naturally occurring population of Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25, 716-725.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2012). Resource allocation trade-off between sperm quality and immunity in the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Behavioral Ecology, 23, 168-173.
  • Simmons, L.W., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (2012). Sperm wars and the evolution of male fertility. Reproduction, 144, 519-534.
  • Watson, N.L., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Unravelling the effects of differential maternal allocation and male genetic quality on offspring viability in the dung beetle, Onthophagus sagittarius. Evolutionary Ecology, 26(1), 139-147.
  • Wojcieszek, J.M., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Evidence for stabilizing selection and slow divergent evolution of male genital morphology in a millipede (Antichiropus variabilis). Evolution, 66, 1138-1153.
  • Wojcieszek, J.M., Austin, P., Harvey, M.S., & Simmons, L.W. (2012). Micro-CT scanning provides insight into the functional morphology of millipede genitalia. Journal of Zoology, 287, 91-95.
  • Rhodes, G., Lie, H., Thevaraja, N., Taylor, E., Iredell, N., Curran, C., Tan, S.Q.C., Carnemolla, P., & Simmons, L.W. (2011). Facial attractiveness ratings from video-clips and static images tell the same story. PLoS One, 6(11), e26653. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026653
  • Simmons, L.W., Peters, M. & Rhodes, G. (2011). Low pitched voices are perceived as masculine and attractive but do they predict semen quality in men? PLoS One, 6(12), e29271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029271
  • Lie, H.C., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2010). Is genetic diversity associated with mating success in humans? Animal Behaviour, 79(4), 903-909. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.12.040
  • Lie, H.C., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2010). Genetic dissimilarity, genetic diversity, and mate preferences in humans. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 31, 48-58.
  • Lie, H.C., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2009). Does genetic diversity predict health in humans? PLoS ONE, 4(7), e6391. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006391
  • Peters, M., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2009). Preferences across the menstrual cycle for masculinity and symmetry in photographs of male faces and bodies. PLoS ONE, 4(1), e4138. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004138
  • Lie, H.C., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2008). Genetic diversity revealed in human faces. Evolution, 62, 2474-2486.
  • Peters, M., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2008). Does attractiveness in men provide clues to semen quality? Evolutionary Biology, 21, 572-579.
  • Peters, M., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2008). Testosterone is associated with mating success but not attractiveness or masculinity in human males. Animal Behaviour, 76(2), 297-303. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.02.008
  • Peters, M., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2007). Contributions of the face and body to overall attractiveness. Animal Behaviour, 73, 937-942.
  • Rhodes, G., Yoshikawa, S., Palermo, R., Simmons, L.W., Peters, M., Lee, K., Halberstadt, J. & Crawford, J. (2007). Perceived health contributes to the attractiveness of facial symmetry, averageness and sexual dimorphism. Perception, 36, 1244-1252.
  • Koehler, N., Rhodes, G., Simmons, L.W., & Zebrowitz, L.A. (2006). Do cyclic changes in women's face preferences target cues to long-term health? Social Cognition, 24(5), 641-656.
  • Kilgallon, S.K., & Simmons, L.W. (2005). Image content influences men's semen quality. Biology Letters, 1, 253-255.
  • Rhodes, G., Simmons, L.W., & Peters, M. (2005). Attractiveness and sexual behaviour: do our preferences generate variation in mating success? Evolution and Human Behaviour, 26, 186-201.
  • Koehler, N., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2004). How well does second–to–fourth–digit ratio in hands correlate with other indications of masculinity in males? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271(Suppl 5), S296-S298. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2004.0163
  • Koehler, N., Simmons, L.W., Rhodes, G., & Peters, M. (2004). The relationship between sexual dimorphism in human faces and fluctuating asymmetry. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271(Suppl 4), S233-S236. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2003.0146
  • Simmons, L.W., Firman, R.C., Rhodes, G., & Peters, M. (2004). Human sperm competition: Testis size, sperm production, and rates of extra-pair copulations. Animal Behaviour, 68, 297-302.
  • Simmons, L.W., Rhodes, G., Koehler, N., & Peters, M. (2004). Are human preferences for facial symmetry focused on signals of developmental stability? Behavioural Ecology, 15, 864-871.
  • Rhodes, G., Chan, J., Zebrowitz, L.A., & Simmons, L.W. (2003). Does sexual dimorphism in human faces signal health? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270(Suppl 1), S93-S95. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2003.0023
  • Koehler, N., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2002). Are human female preferences for symmetrical male faces enhanced when conception is likely? Animal Behaviour, 64(2), 233-238. doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.3063
  • Rhodes, G., Roberts, J., & Simmons, L.W. (1999). Reflections on symmetry and attractiveness. Psychology, Evolution & Gender, 1, 279-295.

Conference Presentations, Colloquia, and other presentations

  • Foo, Y.Z., Simmons, L.W. & Rhodes, G. (2017, June). Predictors of facial attractiveness and health in humans. Paper presented at the International Society for Human Ethology, Boise State University, USA.
  • Foo, Y.-Z., Nakagawa, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2016, August). The effect of testosterone on immune function: A meta-analysis. Poster session presented at the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders Annual Workshop, The Fairmont Resort, Leura.
  • Foo, Y.Z., Nakagawa, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2016, July). The effects of sex hormones on immune function. Paper presented at the 16th Congress of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology (ISBE 2016), Exeter, UK.
  • Foo, Y.Z., Nakagawa, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. (2015, March). Testosterone suppresses immune function: A meta-analysis. Poster session presented at the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders International Person Perception Workshop, Perth.
  • McNamara, K., van Lieshout, E., & Simmons, L.W. (2013, September). A test of the sexy-sperm and good-sperm hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry. Paper presented at the International Symposium, Royal Entomological Society, St Andrews, UK.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2013, September). Sperm competition games: The evolution of male allocation to the ejaculate. Paper presented at the International Symposium, Royal Entomological Society, St Andrews, UK.
  • Simmons, L. (2013, August). An evolutionary perspective on reproductive physiology. Keynote paper presented at the Norman R Adams Memorial Lecture, Endocrine & Reproductive Biology Society of Western Australia, Perth.
  • Buzatto, B.A., Tomkins, J.L., & Simmons, L.W. (2012, August). Maternal effects on male weapons: Female dung beetles produce sons with longer horns in response to increased population density. Paper presented at the 14th Congress of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, Lund, Sweden.
  • Firman, R., Simmons, L.W., Gomendio, M., & Roldan, E. (2012, August). Cracking the egg: The evolution of ova defensiveness. Paper presented at the 14th Congress of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, Lund, Sweden.
  • McNamara, K., van Lieshout, E., Jones, T., & Simmons, L.W. (2012, August). Age-dependent trade-offs between immunity and male, but not female, reproduction. Paper presented at the 14th Congress of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, Lund, Sweden.
  • van Lieshout, E., Tomkins, J.L., & Simmons, L.W. (2012, August). No interaction between the effects of genetic and environmental stress on offensive sperm competitiveness in bean beetles. Paper presented at the 14th Congress of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, Lund, Sweden.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2011, April). Sexual selection and the evolution of primary sexual traits. Invited presentation given at the The Australasian Society for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Flinders University, Adelaide.
  • Lie, H., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. (2008, March). More than just a pretty face? Male averageness and female symmetry signal genetic quality. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society, Perth.
  • Lie, H., Simmons, L., & Rhodes, G. (2007, September). More than just a pretty face? Heterozygosity and facial attractiveness. Paper presented at the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
  • Peters, M., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2007, September). Does attractiveness provide clues to semen quality in human males? Poster session presented at the Biology of Spermatozoa , DerbyShire UK.
  • Peters, M., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2007, September). The role of testosterone in human sexual selection. Poster session presented at the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
  • Peters, M., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L.W. (2005, September). Relative contributions of the face and body to overall attractiveness. Paper presented at the Australasian Evolution Society, Fremantle, Australia.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2005, September). Models of post copulatory sexual selection: Lessons from the dung heap. Invited presentation given at the Biology of Spermatozoa Meeting, Sheffield, UK.
  • Peters, M., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. (2005, April). The relative contributions of the face and body to overall attractiveness. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society , Melbourne.
  • Simmons, L.W. (2003, April). Models of post copulatory sexual selection: Lessons from the dung heap. Invited presentation given at the The Australasian Society for the Study of Animal Behaviour, The Australian National University, Canberra.

Further Information

Contact Details

Telephone: +61 2 9850 4127
Email : ccd@mq.edu.au
Web : www.ccd.edu.au

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